Zubchenko Sviatoslav Vitaliyovych


Syntactic and stylistic means of argumentation in the «History» by Herodotus

Defence Date



This is the first dissertation in the history of the Ukrainian linguistics and classical
philology that offers a comprehensive research of the argumentation stylistic device in the
“History” by Herodotus. The analysis has covered the structural elements and syntactic and
stylistic means of argumentation intensification and revealed that antithesis is the dominant
Both general scientific methods and methodology inherent in the theory of
argumentation and functional stylistics became the foundations of the dissertation. Complex
application of various methods and techniques helped to achieve the research objectives.
The first chapter “Argumentation and factors of its formation: theoretical and
methodological foundations” outlines an overview of the theoretical works, which served as
the basis of the study. In particular, the thesis outlines the following topics: development
stages of the argumentation theory, its logical-linguistic structure, differential features of
different forms of speech for the analysis of the argumentation strategy of the characters in
Herodotus’ “History” along with the syntactic and stylistic structures of argumentation in
the system of classification of rhetorical devices. A separate sub-chapter is devoted to the
methodological foundations of the analysis of syntactic and stylistic means in the
argumentative text of Herodotus.
The second chapter “Monologue, dialogue, polylogue as argumentative texts in
Herodotus” is devoted to the analysis of the direct speech of the characters of the “History”,
which is expressed in the form of monologues, conversations between two participants and
discussions between three or more people. Particular attention is focused on the study of the
organization of argumentation in the various speech types, the identification of its structural
elements (thesis, argument, reference, guarantee), as well as the influence of syntactic and
stylistic means on the effectiveness of argumentation. An attempt was made to trace the
relationship between the number of elements of argumentation, their order, the number of
syntactic and stylistic devices and the effectiveness of argumentation. The coefficient of
syntactic and stylistic means concentration has been determined for each speech. The
analysis of different speech types has revealed a tendency to strengthen the thesis with the
additional elements of argumentation, primarily arguments, and also showed an optional
correlation between the number of syntactic and stylistic devices and the effectiveness of
persuasion. At the same time, it was antithesis that appeared to be the unequivocal syntactic
and stylistic dominant of the argumentation.
The third chapter of the dissertation “Antithesis as a syntactic a stylistic dominant of
argumentation in the text of Herodotus’ History” is dedicated to antithesis. The analysis of
antitheses external structure has revealed the number of oppositional pairs in each figure.
According to the number of oppositions, all antitheses are divided into simple and
composite. Composite antitheses are divided into bipartite and polycomponent (from three
to six antonymic pairs). Antitheses with the unequal number of oppositions have occupied
a special place and the opposition of one component to two is the most common type among
them. This type of antithesis is considered separately and it is proposed to classify it as
asymmetric. The analysis of the external structure of the antitheses has also included
consideration of the components of opposition by morphological affiliation, as well as the
study of additional means of strengthening the contrast (opposite particles, the article in the
distributive function, etc.).
The analysis of the internal structure made it possible to identify monosyllabic,
polysyllabic, morphemeless, and contextual antonyms within the same opposition, as well
as to trace the trends and motives of their usage. A separate aspect of the study of antitheses
became the study of the functioning of this figure alongside or within the limits of other
syntactic and stylistic devices, in particular chiasms. The last paragraph of the chapter is
devoted to antithesis as a means of representations of Herodotus’ mental model.
The obtained data will contribute to the general theory of argumentation, stylistics, and
will also enhance the understanding of the internal laws of the syntactic and stylistic content
of various types of speech within the author’s text, expand the understanding of the
functioning of antithesis in the ancient Greek language, and contribute to the deepening of
knowledge about the language and style of Herodotus.
The results of the dissertation reveal prospects for the further study of Herodotus’
argumentation with the involment of stylistic devices on the phonetic and lexical levels what
will contribute to the creation of the comprehensive approach towards the argumentation
Key words: antithesis, argument, argumentation, dialogue, guarantee, monologue,
polylogue, reference, syntactic and stylistic device, thesis.

Dissertation File

Autosummary File