Semantic and Pragmatic Parameters of Optativity in the Ukrainian and English Languages.
The thesis deals with optativity as an independent type of unreal modality, the
essence of which is the desire of the speaker to get a certain state of things in the world
other than real. Understanding the nature of desire depends on the paradigm. In the
dominant anthropocentric paradigm optativity, despite its obvious link with objective
circumstances, gets a maximum of subjective characteristics, the consideration of
which demands taking into account individual extralinguistic parameters.
Optativity is a binary objective and subjective category, embodied in optative
statements that are implemented in the unity of the real and desired reality and have a
multi-level representation in both the Ukrainian and English languages.
The category of optativity constitutes of different levels of language tools that
are designed to express the desire of the subject (as speaker, not-a-speaker) as modal
relations. Consideration of linguistic methods of desire objectification was held in close
collaboration with their carrier in the anthropocentric paradigm of linguistic studies,
thus, making it, possible to separate two species of optativity – predicative and
predicate ones. The statements with predicative relations of optativity are framed by
the situation “the speaker – semantic situation that is desirable”, while the statements
of predicate relations are witnessing the realization of the relation “the speaker – a
predicative sign that the speaker attributes to the subject of the expression as desired
for the latter one”.
Contrastive analysis of linguistic methods of objectification of optativity showed
that in Ukrainian and English the core of the category of optativity consists of optative
expression of predicative optativity, which are expressed by grammatical means and
the periphery consists of expressions of predicate optativity, represented by lexical and
syntactic means, the palette of the predicative optativity tools is different in the studied
languages. If in the Ukrainian language primary means of linguistic expression is
particle б, sharing all selected typological values, the English counterpart if only
prevails in optative statements with the meaning of desire. Auxiliary linguistic means
of expressing predicative optativity in English are the constructions would / should like
to do, would better / sooner / rather, had better, lest smb do / should do, should have
done, wish smb did / had done. The whole range of linguistic means of expressing
predicative optativity in English is wider compared with the Ukrainian language.
Nuclear means of optativity are predicative expression in the Ukrainian language are a
verb хотіти, and in English the verb to want. Additional means that are synonymous
nuclear counterparts have similar representation in both languages (Ukr. бажати,
зичити, воліти, прагнути, пориватися, Eng. to desire, to long, to covet, to lust, to
intend, to implore).
Within the framework of linguopragmatics optativity is a speech situation
presented by several components and options. The study found that in both languages
in predicate and predicative optativity types the situations are typical and include the
following: the author’s statements, the recipient of expression, the expressed desire of
optative situation, the subject of desire, the object of desire and the desire intensifiers.
The study allows to conclude a universal character of representation of certain
parameters of verbalization of desire in Ukrainian and English fiction discourses,
particularly in predicative statements with the meaning of advice / motivation, fear, an
impossible desire, regret regarding the past, predicative statements with the meaning
of psychomental actions, intentions of complex activities and wishes.
The study showed that the diffusion of optativity is revealed in one segment of
the fiction work of both predicate and predicative types, and optative statements with
different typological meanings. In particular, the linguistic analysis of the material
showed a typical combination of optative statements with the meaning of physical,
psycho-mental actions and audio-visual perception of both languages. This diffusion is
also a sign of the discourse-generating potential of optativity.
Thus, the anthropocentric paradigm of the research made it possible to consider
different aspects of this category, taking into account both the factor of a human being,
as the expresser and performer of desires, and other lingual and extra-lingual
parameters that affect the implementation of the optativity in the language.
Keywords: optativity, desirability, predicacy, predicativity, optative situation.